Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. In telephony, the local loop is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the carrier or telecommunications service provider''s network. At the edge of the carrier access network in a traditional PSTN scenario, the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in an ILEC CO. Traditionally, the local loop was wireline in nature from customer to central office, specifically in the form of an electrical circuit provisioned as a single twisted pair in support of voice communications. Where the number of local loops was restricted, different customers could share the same loop, known as a party line. Modern implementations may include a digital loop carrier system segment or fiber optic transmission system known as fiber-in-the-loop. The local loop may terminate at a circuit switch owned by a CLEC and housed in a POP, which typically is either an ILEC CO or a "carrier hotel". A local loop may be provisioned to support data communications applications, or combined voice and data such as digital subscriber line.
National Telecom Limited (NTC) was incorporated on June 8, 2004 for the purpose of implementing, owning and operating a fixed line network in Bangladesh. NTC was awarded a PSTN license by the Bangladesh Telecom Regulatory Commission (BTRC), and the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) to operate basic telephone services, data and broadband services in all over Bangladesh. The license was granted for a period of 20 years and is renewable prior to expiry. The authorised capital of NTC is Bangladesh Taka (BDT) 5 billion (approx US$ 73 million) divided into 50,000,000 ordinary shares of BDT 100 each. 1 US$ = 68.7 BD National Telecom, received a national license on 23 September 2007 and is one of the six PSTN operators to operate PSTN service all over Bangladesh. The license was granted for a period of 15 years and is renewable prior to expiry and NTC had to surrender all previous (four Zone) licenses. NTC also received one spot of 450 MHz and one spot of 1900 MHz frequency from BTRC.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Plain old telephone service (POTS) is the voice-grade telephone service that remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in many parts of the world.The name is a retronym, and is a reflection of the telephone service still available after the advent of more advanced forms of telephony such as ISDN, mobile phones and VoIP. POTS has been available almost since the introduction of the public telephone system in the late 19th century, in a form mostly unchanged to the normal user despite the introduction of Touch-Tone dialing, electronic telephone exchanges and fiber-optic communication into the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
Der Umsatz des Electronic Commerce hat sich in den letzten Jahren vervielfacht. Im Mittelpunkt steht die Kundenorientierung. Mit diesem Ziel sind die Service- und Supportprozesse zukunftsorientiert zu entwickeln und die weiter bestehenden Vertriebswege anzupassen. Der Service und Support über mehrere parallele Kanäle kann über Teleweb geleistet werden. Teleweb ist ein technologie-gestützter Prozess, der die beiden Technologien Collaborative Browsing und Telefonie unter Nutzung der Kommunikationsdienste Internet und PSTN/VoIP über einen CTI-Server integriert, welcher von mindestens zwei Personen parallel benutzt wird. In dieser Arbeit werden dafür die Grundlagen erarbeitet und ein Prozessmodell entwickelt. Bei der Umsetzung ist der Focus auf Call Center gerichtet.
- Install, configure, deploy, secure, and maintain Asterisk - Build a fully-featured telephony system and create a dial plan that suits your needs - Learn from example configurations for different requirement - Implement 3rd party applications which will help you manage Asterisk through a web interface Asterisk is a powerful and flexible open source framework for building feature-rich telephony systems. As a Private Branch Exchange (PBX) which connects one or more telephones, and usually connects to one or more telephone lines, Asterisk offers very advanced features, including extension-to-extension calls, queues, ring groups, line trunking, call distribution, call detail rerecords, and call recording. This book will show you how to build a telephony system for your home or business using this open source application. 'Asterisk 1.6' takes you step-by-step through the process of installing and configuring Asterisk. It covers everything from establishing your deployment plan to creating a fully functional PBX solution. Through this book you will learn how to connect employees from all over the world as well as streamline your callers through Auto Attendants (IVR) and Ring Groups. This book is all you need to understand and use Asterisk to build the telephony system that meets your need. You will learn how to use the many features that Asterisk provides you with. It presents example configurations for using Asterisk in three different scenarios: for small and home offices, small businesses, and Hosted PBX. Over the course of ten chapters, this book introduces you to topics as diverse as Public Switched Telephony Network (PSTN), Voice over IP Connections (SIP / IAX), DAHDI, libpri, through to advanced call distribution, automated attendants, FreePBX, and asterCRM. With an engaging style and excellent way of presenting information, this book makes a complicated subject very easy to understand. An easy introduction to using and configuring Asterisk to build feature-rich telephony systems for small, medium and large businesses What you will learn from this book : - Install, configure, and deploy Asterisk to build a fully-featured telephony system - Install and use FreePBX - Connect your Asterisk server with your phone service (via PSTN, SIP, etc) as well as learn to deploy some basic PBX features such as queues, voicemail and music on hold - Determine how calls are routed through the Asterisk server by creating a dialplan - Create extensions, distribute calls in an orderly fashion using queues, and present callers with a greeting using automated attendants (IVR) - Install and learn how to monitor, record, and capture detailed call logs - Install and use asterCRM (customer relation management solution) to streamline your business operations - Gain knowledge of security precautions, network deployment recommendations as well as maintenance tips such as backups and preparing disaster recovery plans for keeping the Asterisk system running smooth and secure Who this book is written for This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in building a powerful telephony system using the free and open source application, Asterisk, without spending many thousands of dollars buying a commercial and often less flexible system. This book is suitable for the novice and those new to Asterisk and telephony. Telephony or Linux experience will be helpful, but not required.
- 16, 24 or 32 FXS or FXO—Simultaneous voice or fax calls on all ports. Advanced local call switching.- Full SIP and T.38 support—Supports the complete range of industry standard VoIP: SIP, H.323, T.38 fax, fax and modem bypass, DTMF relay. Codecs G.729, G.723 etc.- Outstanding Interoperability—Interoperable for voice and T.38 fax with leading SIP service providers, soft-switch vendors and Asterisk IP-PBXThe SmartNode 4300 VoIP Gateway provides 12 to 32 analog FXS or FXO interfaces to connect phones, fax or PSTN trunk lines to your IP-based communications (IP PBX, UC systems and SIP Trunks).Like every SmartNode, the SN4300 supports every industry-standard CODEC to deliver toll-quality voice on every call. The Unified Communications Agent™ (UCA) provides any-to-any multi-path switching (simultaneous SIP, H.323, ISDN, and POTS calls with routing and conversion between TDM/PSTN and IP/Ethernet networks—plus T.38 and SuperG3 FAX). VoIP-over-VPN with voice encryption provides secure voice and data via IPsec with AES/DES strong encryption and automated keying via Internet Key Exchange (IKE). In addition, advanced call-router functionality includes least-cost call routing with flexible dialed-number plan support.The SmartNode survivability suite provides PSTN fallback to ensure business continuity in case the IP network fails. In addition, SmartNode delivers a smooth transition to VoIP with strong number portability support accepting incoming calls from the PSTN throughout the VoIP service provider's number porting process.Preserve investments in legacy phone equipment while taking the next steps toward unified communications with the SN4300 VoIP Gateway. Providing 12 to 32 FXS or FXO interfaces and one 10/100/1000 Ethernet, the SN4300 delivers a reliable, cost-effective solution for the Enterprise.
Features - Up to 8 FXS and/or FXO ports—Compact, reliable stand-alone VoIP gateway with different port options. Supports simultaneous voice or fax calls on all ports. (note: Patton does not carry an 8-FXO unit at the present time) - Advanced Local Call Switching—Virtual interfaces and routing tables provide industry leading flexibility in call handling programming. Local call switching, soft fallback to alternative routes. Simultaneously connects to multiple SIP services/IP PBXs. - Complete SIP and T.38 support—Supports the complete range of industry standard VoIP: SIP, H.323, T.38 fax, fax and modem handling, DTMF relay. Codecs G.729, G.723, etc. - Easy Management & Provisioning—Web-based management, SNMP, command line interface. Automated mass provisioning for efficient large-scale deployments. - Outstanding Interoperability—Proven integration for voice and T.38 fax with 3CX®, Asterisk™, PingTel™ and other leading IP PBX systems and soft switch vendors. - Supported by SmartNode™ Redirection Service: A free service enabling zero-touch mass deployments for Service Providers and Distributors with auto-provisioning servers (Learn More). Overview The business-class SmartNode 4110 VoIP Media Gateway supports up to eight transparent phone calls and leverages VoIP for carrier and corporate access. Connecting to any analog phone, fax, or PBX, the SN4110 is an effective and flexible solution for toll-bypass, remote/branch office voice connectivity, and enhanced carrier services. The SN4110 Series is the perfect choice for phone-to-IP connectivity supporting up to 8 FXS ports or a combination of 4 FXS and 2 or 4 FXO ports. With its FXS analog ports, the SN4112S connects to any legacy telephone or PBX and provides dial-tone, ringing, and caller-ID. When equipped with FXO ports, the local PSTN can be accessed enabling local calling and enhanced toll-bypass applications while using a single connected telephone. Flexible call integration allows per-port telephone numbers, programmable call progress tones, and distinctive ringing. With Telephony-over-IP (ToIP) call switching, calls can automatically select the least-cost-route while providing flexible numbering plans and end-to-end feature transparency. PPPoE, DHCP, and VLAN offers universal IP connectivity and optional IPsec VPN with AES/3DES guarantees secure voice over the public network. Patton’s SmartNode SN4110 Series delivers the legacy phone interfaces, service transparency, and flexible PSTN integration required for true converged packet voice. Applications Remote Office/Branch Office Voice Extension and Access In enterprise networks, transparent access to PBX features while using existing equipment is key to low-cost operations. Now, instead of installing a separate PBX at the remote office, the SmartNode 4110 Series is able to provide transparent extension while simultaneously connecting multiple locations. The extensions can be managed centrally and benefit from PBX services such as calling groups, least cost routing, and call forwarding. PSTN access allows local calls to be processed without using corporate remote PBX resources. Additionally, the corporate PBX can break-out and bypass any long distance charges by using the remote office for the local gateway.
Comprehensive coverage explaining the correlation and synergy between Next Generation Networks and the existing standardized technologies This book focuses on Next Generation Networks (NGN); in particular, on NGN architectures, protocols and services, including technologies, regulation and business aspects. NGN provides convergence between the traditional telecommunications and the Internet, and it is globally standardized by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union), where ITU is the United Nations specialized agency for Information and Communication Technologies - ICTs. The convergence towards the NGN is based on the Internet technologies, and the introductory chapters cover the Internet fundamentals of today, including architectures, protocols (IPv4, IPv6, TCP, DNS, etc.), Internet services (WWW, e-mail, BitTorrent, Skype, and more), as well as Internet governance. Further, the prerequisite for convergence of all ICT services over single network architectures is broadband access to the Internet. Hence, the book includes architectures of fixed broadband Internet access networks, such as DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) networks, cable networks, FTTH (Fiber To The Home), next generation passive and active optical networks, and metro Ethernet. It also covers network architectures for next generation (4G) mobile and wireless networks (LTE/LTE-Advanced, and Mobile WiMAX 2.0), then Fixed Mobile Convergence - FMC, next generation mobile services, as well as business and regulatory aspects for next generation mobile networks and services. * Comprehensive coverage explaining the correlation and synergy between Next Generation Networks and the existing standardized technologies * Focuses on Next Generation Networks (NGN) as defined by the ITU, including performance, service architectures and mechanisms, common IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), control and signalling protocols used in NGN, security approaches, identity management, NGN Service Overlay Networks, and NGN business models * Examines the most important NGN services, including QoS-enabled VoIP, IPTV over NGN, web services in NGN, peer-to-peer services, Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) services, VPN services in NGN, Internet of things and web of things * Includes the transition towards NGN from the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Networks) and from the best-effort Internet via the same Internet access * Explores advanced topics such as IPv6-based NGN, network virtualization, and future packet based networks, as well as business challenges and opportunities for the NGN evolved networks and services Essential reading for engineers and employees from regulatory bodies, government organisations, telecommunication companies, ICT companies.
This book provides a complete and comprehensive overview of 3G UMTS charging services Evolving from offline billing of traditional telecommunications, charging for IP services in mobile networks is challenging; charging convergence is one of the major trends in the telecom industry. Advanced mobile telecommunications incorporates data applications with real-time control and management, and requires a convergent and flexible online charging system. Such convergence is essential to mitigate fraud and credit risks in order to provide more personalized information to users about charges and credit limit controls. Charging for Mobile All-IP Telecommunications provides comprehensive and practical coverage of online and offline charging based on mobile operator experiences, and the latest efforts undertaken by the UMTS specifications. Key features: * Presents a complete overview of the telecommunications charging system, including the evolution from 2G to 3G and all-IP network charging frameworks * Discusses all management aspects related to charging and billing processes, with a focus on the major trends and developments within the telecoms industry * Provides an overview of the telecom networks such as PSTN, GSM, UMTS and IMS * Covers the concepts of the telecom charging on mobile services and the new technologies for implementing online charging system, such as GTP' and Diameter protocol * Contains coverage on network nodes and data flows in relation to charging of mobile applications, such as IMS call and content downloading * Explains the IP-based online charging system, protocol details and recent trends in charging for mobile telecom industry This book is an invaluable resource for graduate students, telecoms and IP engineers, network service providers and system architects. Information technologists and networking equipment manufacturers will also find this book insightful.